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Wednesday, January 19, 2022
NEW YORK, Nov 9 2009 (IPS) - Human rights advocates and legal scholars are voicing sharp criticism of President Barack Obama’s revisions to the George W. Bush administration’s Military Commissions Act of 2006, characterising them as unnecessary and saying the new law will lead to further delays and create a system of “second-class justice”.
One powerful advocacy group, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), called on the Obama administration to “abandon the fatally flawed military commissions system and, where evidence of terrorism crimes exists, try the Guantánamo detainees in federal courts”.
Said a statement from the Center for Constitutional Rights, an advocacy group that has mobilised dozens of lawyers to defend inmates at Guantanamo Bay, “The use of military commissions will only lead to further delays in a process already long overdrawn.” “Any new system will inherently fall prey to growing pains and missteps, and years of appeals after trial to sort through the new legal uncertainties created today,” it said. “Fundamental aspects of the system, such as who may be tried before such commissions, remain vague.”
The group added that the new law “includes ‘conspiracy’ and ‘material support’ as war crimes, contradicting the Obama administration’s prior position that they did not qualify as offenses triable by military commission.”
President Obama signed the new bill into law last week, as part of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA).
Other critics of the new legislation were able to point to some improvements over the prior measure.
Frakt, who has returned to his work as a professor at Western State University College of Law in Fullerton, California, told IPS, “Clearly, the new military commissions are a significant improvement, at least on paper, over the previous incarnations. The revisions to the hearsay rules and the establishment of a voluntariness standard for the admissibility of statements are the two most significant improvements.”
However, he added, “The military commissions are still fundamentally flawed in a number of respects.”
Frakt noted that there is no requirement of pretrial investigation, such as a preliminary hearing or grand jury, and that evidence derived from coerced statements may still be admitted into evidence. Juveniles are also still subject to trial by military commissions.
The MCA “still authorises the trial of detainees for a variety of offences that are not traditional war crimes, including material support to terrorism, terrorism, conspiracy, and the invented offense of murder in violation of the law of war,” he added.
Frakt said military commissions “are wholly unnecessary”.
He told IPS, “Now that that the evidentiary rules in military commissions have been tightened to more closely resemble the rules in federal courts, the real reason for the creation of military commissions – the ability to gain easy convictions on tainted evidence – has largely been removed. But the taint of the original process still lingers.”
“The criteria for determining which cases go to commissions and which to federal courts make no sense,” he said. “Basically, the cases will go to federal court if the Justice Department wants the case and thinks they can prove it, and the rest of the cases will go to the military commissions. This is further proof that the commissions are a second-class option.”
An amendment to the law introduced by Sen. Lindsey Graham would have blocked transfer of alleged 9/11 planners to federal criminal court. It was defeated 54-45.
Christopher Anders, senior legislative counsel for the ACLU, told IPS he regarded this as “a big win”.
He said, “Thankfully the Senate has made the right decision by not tying the president’s hands when it comes to prosecuting detainees. Making it more difficult to prosecute detainees in our federal courts only serves to delay bringing them to justice.”
He pointed out that the U.S. has successfully tried nearly 200 international terrorism defendants in federal courts since 9/11.
“We have an American system of justice that works, and there is no reason not to use it,” he said.
The military commissions created by President Bush after the 9/11 attacks and subsequently authorised by Congress tried only three cases.
Others were equally scathing in their criticism of the new commissions. Francis Boyle, a law professor at the University of Illinois, characterised the commissions as “Obama’s Kangaroo Courts”.
He told IPS, “The Gitmo Kangaroo Courts constitute war crimes under the Laws of War, the Four Geneva Conventions of 1949, and even the U. S. Army’s own Field Manual.”
And Gabor Rona, international legal director of Human Rights First, told IPS, “The assertion that regular courts are for regular crimes and military commissions are for war crimes is false. If it were true, then why do we have a War Crimes Statute that creates jurisdiction in our federal courts?”
He added, “I’m particularly struck by this disconnect: the Task Force [appointed by President Obama] recognises the historic limitation for use of military commissions, namely situations of ‘military necessity,’ which is properly understood as, for example, in situations of occupation where the usual mechanisms of justice are not operating.”
“But then, despite acknowledging the success of federal court terrorism prosecutions, the Task Force sets out a series of considerations for deciding whether to send a case to military commission without due regard for the fact that federal courts are open and operating,” Rona said.
Critics also pointed out what they termed other deficiencies in the new law. For example, the new bill also fails to include a sunset provision, making the system a permanent part of President Obama’s legacy.
Center for Constitutional Rights Executive Director Vincent Warren made the point even more starkly: “These are now President Obama’s military commissions: he owns them and all of the problems that come with them, and their inevitable failure will scar his legacy and embolden our critics in the world.”
The Obama administration is expected to announce its plans for prosecuting a number of Guantánamo detainees either in federal courts or before the Guantánamo military commissions by Nov. 16.
Several news organisations have reported that alleged 9/11 planners will likely be sent to federal criminal courts to be prosecuted by the Justice Department.
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