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Thursday, July 31, 2014
- SANTO DOMINGO, Jun 29 2012 (IPS) – Incorporating a gender focus in public policies for confronting and adapting to the impacts of climate change is still a pending task in the Caribbean, despite women’s proven skills in risk and disaster management.
Women, especially at the community level, tend to head up the networks trained in disaster evacuation and contingency plans, and play key roles in health measures and shelters during emergencies.
But they are also among the most vulnerable, as reflected by statistics on the victims of impacts of extreme weather events. In 2007, Hurricane Noel claimed 88 lives in the Dominican Republic, and left 14 people missing and 66,000 homeless.
The official statistics are not broken down by gender. However, United Nations studies have documented cases of sexual violence against women in emergency shelters, where their burden of domestic work also becomes heavier.
In Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and India, the Dec. 24, 2004 tsunami killed four times as many women as men in many areas, according to a survey by Oxfam. One reason for this was that women in those areas were often unable to swim or climb onto a roof or into a tree, which meant they couldn’t escape. Another reason was that they stayed in their homes to take care of their children and other relatives.
Experts agree that climate change will lead to more intense hurricanes and more frequent and severe drought and flooding. This threat to people’s lives and to food security makes it even more urgent to address risk management and adaptation to environmental changes with a gender perspective.
But “integrating a gender perspective in these processes requires that public policies be based on an assessment and recognition of the inequalities between men and women and between social classes in society,” said Lourdes Meyreles, a researcher at the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO) in the Dominican Republic.
In an interview with IPS, the expert said the factors that increase the vulnerability of women are linked to the disadvantages they face with respect to access to resources that are basic to climate change adaptation, such as land ownership, the possibility of getting a loan, or participation in decision-making for the distribution of key resources like water.
“Although it is women who manage this essential resource, they are not necessarily present in decision-making about it,” said Meyreles. “Addressing this inequality is a fundamental challenge for public policy.”
She said an important consequence of including a gender perspective in the institutional structures involved in disaster risk management and climate change adaptation would be that this focus would be incorporated in all aspects of policy-making on the issue: prior assessments, design, implementation and evaluation.